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Title: Addressing Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas through Sustainable Technologies, Gender Integration and Supportive Policy Framework
Authors: Waititu, Annabell
Date: 2012
Abstract: Around 1.1 billion people globally do not have access to improved water supply sources whereas 2.6 billion people do not have access to any type of improved sanitation facility (WHO).About 2 million people die every year due to diarrhea diseases, most of them are children less than 5 years of age. The most affected are the populations in developing countries, living in extreme conditions of poverty, normally peri-urban dwellers or rural inhabitants. Among the main problems which are responsible for this situation are: lack of priority given to the sector, lack of financial resources, lack of sustainability of water supply and sanitation services, poor hygiene behaviours, and inadequate sanitation in public places including hospitals, health centres and schools. Providing access to sufficient quantities of safe water, the provision of facilities for a sanitary disposal of excreta, and introducing sound hygiene behaviours are of capital importance to reduce the burden of disease caused by these risk factors. Poor sanitation costs Kenya 27 billion Kenyan Shillings each year, equivalent to US$324 million, according to a desk study carried out by the Water and Sanitation Program. This sum is the equivalent of US$8 per person in Kenya per year or 0.9% of the national GDP. 21 million Kenyans use unsanitary or shared latrines. 5.6 million have no latrine at all and defecate in the open. The poorest quintile is 270 times more likely to practice open defection than the richest. Open defecation costs Kenya US$88 million per year – yet eliminating the practice would require less than 1.2 million latrines to be built and used.3 The sanitation coverage in urban areas of Uganda is about 70% (MWE, 2007). Masaka municipality benefits from the services of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC). However, According to the Masaka Municipal Development Plan 2007/08-2009/10, only 24% use water-borne toilets, while 75% use pit latrines, and 1% has no facility at all. In 2008 the East African Wildlife Society (EAWLS) and the Institute of Environment and Water (IEW) proposed a participatory research project to the IDRC as a contribution to the global initiative of providing 2.6 billion people with proper sanitation. The project commenced on the 15th of October 2008. In Kenya, the project was to be part of the integrated effort on Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor initiative (WSUP) being implemented in Naivasha Municipality while in Uganda, it was to be part of the integrated effort of UN-HABITAT under Lake Victoria Water And Sanitation (WATSAN) initiative in Masaka municipality. The project was supposed to provide gender and technical case scenarios in order to inform their programme designs and implementation on a continuous basis. The project aim was to: study the situation of sanitation infrastructure in these towns, identify alternative sanitation technologies being used in different poverty strata, and assess gender needs and concerns in sanitation delivery and the relevance of national and local sanitation policies. This culminated in the modeling of the experiences and options that would in turn lead to testing and applying alternative designs, technologies and delivery mechanisms. Lessons learnt from the tested models were used to inform the ongoing policy reforms in the two countries. It is expected that the findings will continue to shape the work of the development agencies by incorporating lessons learnt from the process.
Project Number: 105250
Project Title: Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East Africa)
Access: Open Access
License: MGC signed post January 2008 - author/owner is recipient who signed the MGC; copyright statement required on document
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